Retrieved May 2, Ranking the American Music Awards Performances". Watch Rihanna receive Icon Award, do 'Diamonds ' ". Retrieved October 11, Retrieved March 13, Retrieved February 15, Retrieved November 15, Retrieved August 5, Retrieved April 8, Retrieved October 29, Retrieved May 14, Retrieved July 4, Retrieved November 17, Retrieved November 19, Retrieved December 4, Retrieved May 9, Retrieved June 20, Retrieved December 22, Retrieved January 10, Sony Europe on YouTube.
Retrieved December 27, Retrieved January 24, Retrieved December 9, Retrieved December 11, Retrieved July 3, Archived from the original on February 20, Retrieved January 11, Retrieved December 13, Single track Top 40 lista.
Retrieved October 26, Archived from the original on December 19, Retrieved October 31, Archived from the original on October 6, Archived from the original on January 25, Monitor Latino in Spanish.
Archived from the original on January 29, Retrieved January 22, Retrieved February 24, Retrieved September 29, Polish Airplay Top Retrieved January 5, Archived from the original on November 21, Retrieved October 10, Archived from the original on 27 January Retrieved 27 January User may scroll down the 'Podcasturi' menu to play or download the respective podcast.
Retrieved 2 July Romanian and international positions are rendered together by the number of plays before resulting an overall chart.
Retrieved 3 July Select 'Songs — TV'. Retrieved January 30, International Federation of the Phonographic Industry.
Retrieved October 17, Retrieved July 15, Slovenian official singles weekly chart" in Slovenian. Retrieved 14 July Archived from the original on October 29, Retrieved November 14, Retrieved October 18, Retrieved June 27, Retrieved December 8, Archived from the original on February 25, Retrieved February 14, Archived from the original on January 9, Retrieved January 23, Retrieved February 26, Archived from the original on December 4, Retrieved January 26, Retrieved June 9, Retrieved March 6, Retrieved August 21, Retrieved February 3, Archived from the original on December 3, Retrieved January 18, Mega Single Top Retrieved March 22, Retrieved January 16, Archived from the original on May 24, Archived from the original on February 10, Archived from the original on January 7, Retrieved January 8, Archived from the original on February 9, Archived from the original on April 17, Archived from the original on April 18, Retrieved December 26, Retrieved August 24, Retrieved February 16, Federation of the Italian Music Industry.
Archived from the original on March 5, Retrieved March 4, Archived from the original on March 28, Archived from the original on March 6, Swedish Recording Industry Association.
Archived from the original on November 29, Retrieved June 8, Retrieved 21 August Recently, diamond cutting centers have been established in China, India, Thailand , Namibia and Botswana.
The recent expansion of this industry in India, employing low cost labor, has allowed smaller diamonds to be prepared as gems in greater quantities than was previously economically feasible.
Diamonds prepared as gemstones are sold on diamond exchanges called bourses. There are 28 registered diamond bourses in the world.
Diamonds can be sold already set in jewelry, or sold unset "loose". Mined rough diamonds are converted into gems through a multi-step process called "cutting".
Diamonds are extremely hard, but also brittle and can be split up by a single blow. Therefore, diamond cutting is traditionally considered as a delicate procedure requiring skills, scientific knowledge, tools and experience.
Its final goal is to produce a faceted jewel where the specific angles between the facets would optimize the diamond luster, that is dispersion of white light, whereas the number and area of facets would determine the weight of the final product.
For example, the diamond might be intended for display or for wear, in a ring or a necklace, singled or surrounded by other gems of certain color and shape.
Some of them are special, produced by certain companies, for example, Phoenix , Cushion , Sole Mio diamonds, etc. The most time-consuming part of the cutting is the preliminary analysis of the rough stone.
It needs to address a large number of issues, bears much responsibility, and therefore can last years in case of unique diamonds.
The following issues are considered:. After initial cutting, the diamond is shaped in numerous stages of polishing.
Unlike cutting, which is a responsible but quick operation, polishing removes material by gradual erosion and is extremely time consuming.
The associated technique is well developed; it is considered as a routine and can be performed by technicians. Those flaws are concealed through various diamond enhancement techniques, such as repolishing, crack filling, or clever arrangement of the stone in the jewelry.
Remaining non-diamond inclusions are removed through laser drilling and filling of the voids produced. And the firm created new markets in countries where no diamond tradition had existed before.
Ayer's marketing included product placement , advertising focused on the diamond product itself rather than the De Beers brand, and associations with celebrities and royalty.
Without advertising the De Beers brand, De Beers was advertising its competitors' diamond products as well,  but this was not a concern as De Beers dominated the diamond market throughout the 20th century.
De Beers still advertises diamonds, but the advertising now mostly promotes its own brands, or licensed product lines, rather than completely "generic" diamond products.
Brown-colored diamonds constituted a significant part of the diamond production, and were predominantly used for industrial purposes. They were seen as worthless for jewelry not even being assessed on the diamond color scale.
After the development of Argyle diamond mine in Australia in , and marketing, brown diamonds have become acceptable gems. Industrial diamonds are valued mostly for their hardness and thermal conductivity, making many of the gemological characteristics of diamonds, such as the 4 Cs , irrelevant for most applications.
The boundary between gem-quality diamonds and industrial diamonds is poorly defined and partly depends on market conditions for example, if demand for polished diamonds is high, some lower-grade stones will be polished into low-quality or small gemstones rather than being sold for industrial use.
Within the category of industrial diamonds, there is a sub-category comprising the lowest-quality, mostly opaque stones, which are known as bort.
Industrial use of diamonds has historically been associated with their hardness, which makes diamond the ideal material for cutting and grinding tools.
As the hardest known naturally occurring material, diamond can be used to polish, cut, or wear away any material, including other diamonds.
Common industrial applications of this property include diamond-tipped drill bits and saws, and the use of diamond powder as an abrasive.
Less expensive industrial-grade diamonds, known as bort, with more flaws and poorer color than gems, are used for such purposes. Specialized applications include use in laboratories as containment for high-pressure experiments see diamond anvil cell , high-performance bearings , and limited use in specialized windows.
The high thermal conductivity of diamond makes it suitable as a heat sink for integrated circuits in electronics. The mining and distribution of natural diamonds are subjects of frequent controversy such as concerns over the sale of blood diamonds or conflict diamonds by African paramilitary groups.
Only a very small fraction of the diamond ore consists of actual diamonds. The ore is crushed, during which care is required not to destroy larger diamonds, and then sorted by density.
Today, diamonds are located in the diamond-rich density fraction with the help of X-ray fluorescence , after which the final sorting steps are done by hand.
Before the use of X-rays became commonplace,  the separation was done with grease belts; diamonds have a stronger tendency to stick to grease than the other minerals in the ore.
Historically, diamonds were found only in alluvial deposits in Guntur and Krishna district of the Krishna River delta in Southern India.
Diamond extraction from primary deposits kimberlites and lamproites started in the s after the discovery of the Diamond Fields in South Africa.
Most of these mines are located in Canada, Zimbabwe, Angola, and one in Russia. The Crater of Diamonds State Park in Arkansas is open to the public, and is the only mine in the world where members of the public can dig for diamonds.
Australia boasts the richest diamantiferous pipe, with production from the Argyle diamond mine reaching peak levels of 42 metric tons per year in the s.
In some of the more politically unstable central African and west African countries, revolutionary groups have taken control of diamond mines , using proceeds from diamond sales to finance their operations.
Diamonds sold through this process are known as conflict diamonds or blood diamonds. In response to public concerns that their diamond purchases were contributing to war and human rights abuses in central and western Africa, the United Nations , the diamond industry and diamond-trading nations introduced the Kimberley Process in This is done by requiring diamond-producing countries to provide proof that the money they make from selling the diamonds is not used to fund criminal or revolutionary activities.
Although the Kimberley Process has been moderately successful in limiting the number of conflict diamonds entering the market, some still find their way in.
This is a stringent tracking system of diamonds and helps protect the "conflict free" label of Canadian diamonds. Synthetic diamonds are diamonds manufactured in a laboratory, as opposed to diamonds mined from the Earth.
The gemological and industrial uses of diamond have created a large demand for rough stones. This demand has been satisfied in large part by synthetic diamonds, which have been manufactured by various processes for more than half a century.
However, in recent years it has become possible to produce gem-quality synthetic diamonds of significant size. The majority of commercially available synthetic diamonds are yellow and are produced by so-called high-pressure high-temperature HPHT processes.
Other colors may also be reproduced such as blue, green or pink, which are a result of the addition of boron or from irradiation after synthesis.
Another popular method of growing synthetic diamond is chemical vapor deposition CVD. The growth occurs under low pressure below atmospheric pressure.
It involves feeding a mixture of gases typically 1 to 99 methane to hydrogen into a chamber and splitting them to chemically active radicals in a plasma ignited by microwaves , hot filament , arc discharge , welding torch or laser.
A diamond simulant is a non-diamond material that is used to simulate the appearance of a diamond, and may be referred to as diamante. Cubic zirconia is the most common.
The gemstone moissanite silicon carbide can be treated as a diamond simulant, though more costly to produce than cubic zirconia.
Both are produced synthetically. Diamond enhancements are specific treatments performed on natural or synthetic diamonds usually those already cut and polished into a gem , which are designed to better the gemological characteristics of the stone in one or more ways.
These include laser drilling to remove inclusions, application of sealants to fill cracks, treatments to improve a white diamond's color grade, and treatments to give fancy color to a white diamond.
Coatings are increasingly used to give a diamond simulant such as cubic zirconia a more "diamond-like" appearance.
One such substance is diamond-like carbon —an amorphous carbonaceous material that has some physical properties similar to those of the diamond.
Advertising suggests that such a coating would transfer some of these diamond-like properties to the coated stone, hence enhancing the diamond simulant.
Techniques such as Raman spectroscopy should easily identify such a treatment. Early diamond identification tests included a scratch test relying on the superior hardness of diamond.
This test is destructive, as a diamond can scratch another diamond, and is rarely used nowadays. Instead, diamond identification relies on its superior thermal conductivity.
Electronic thermal probes are widely used in the gemological centers to separate diamonds from their imitations. These probes consist of a pair of battery-powered thermistors mounted in a fine copper tip.
One thermistor functions as a heating device while the other measures the temperature of the copper tip: This test takes about 2—3 seconds.
Whereas the thermal probe can separate diamonds from most of their simulants, distinguishing between various types of diamond, for example synthetic or natural, irradiated or non-irradiated, etc.
Those techniques are also used for some diamonds simulants, such as silicon carbide, which pass the thermal conductivity test.
Optical techniques can distinguish between natural diamonds and synthetic diamonds. They can also identify the vast majority of treated natural diamonds.
Laboratories use techniques such as spectroscopy, microscopy and luminescence under shortwave ultraviolet light to determine a diamond's origin.
Several methods for identifying synthetic diamonds can be performed, depending on the method of production and the color of the diamond. CVD diamonds can usually be identified by an orange fluorescence.
Screening devices based on diamond type detection can be used to make a distinction between diamonds that are certainly natural and diamonds that are potentially synthetic.
Those potentially synthetic diamonds require more investigation in a specialized lab. Occasionally large thefts of diamonds take place.
The gang broke through a perimeter fence and raided the cargo hold of a Swiss-bound plane. The gang have since been arrested and large amounts of cash and diamonds recovered.
The identification of stolen diamonds presents a set of difficult problems. Rough diamonds will have a distinctive shape depending on whether their source is a mine or from an alluvial environment such as a beach or river—alluvial diamonds have smoother surfaces than those that have been mined.
Determining the provenance of cut and polished stones is much more complex. The Kimberley Process was developed to monitor the trade in rough diamonds and prevent their being used to fund violence.
Before exporting, rough diamonds are certificated by the government of the country of origin. Some countries, such as Venezuela, are not party to the agreement.
The Kimberley Process does not apply to local sales of rough diamonds within a country. Diamonds may be etched by laser with marks invisible to the naked eye.
Lazare Kaplan , a US-based company, developed this method. However, whatever is marked on a diamond can readily be removed. Diamonds have been known in India for at least 3, years but most likely 6, years.
Diamonds have been treasured as gemstones since their use as religious icons in ancient India. Their usage in engraving tools also dates to early human history.
In , the French scientist Antoine Lavoisier used a lens to concentrate the rays of the sun on a diamond in an atmosphere of oxygen , and showed that the only product of the combustion was carbon dioxide , proving that diamond is composed of carbon.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the mineral. For the gemstone, see Diamond gemstone. The slightly misshapen octahedral shape of this rough diamond crystal in matrix is typical of the mineral.
Its lustrous faces also indicate that this crystal is from a primary deposit. Material properties of diamond. Crystallographic defects in diamond.
A round brilliant cut diamond set in a ring. Diamond cutting and Diamond cut. List of diamond mines and Exploration diamond drilling.
Kimberley Process , Blood diamond , and Child labour in the diamond industry. Gemology and Jewelry portal.
Retrieved July 7, Handbook of carbon, graphite, diamond, and fullerenes: The physics of diamond. Retrieved 31 October Reports on Progress in Physics.
Laser ablation in liquids: Phase boundaries and electronic properties from first-principles theory". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Holt, Rinehart and Winston. In Radovic, Ljubisa R. Chemistry and physics of carbon. Their sources, descriptions and identification 5th ed. A Stable Isotope Perspective".
Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences. Diamond and Related Materials. Retrieved October 28, Properties, Growth and Applications of Diamond.
Institution of Engineering and Technology. Innovative superhard materials and sustainable coatings for advanced manufacturing.
Handbook of ceramic grinding and polishing. The nature of diamonds. Retrieved 1 November Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A. Retrieved March 31, Retrieved May 13, Synthetic, Imitation and Treated Gemstones.
Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration. The Mantle and Core. Archived from the original PDF on October 21, Gamepedia Gamepedia support Help Wiki Contact us.
This page was last edited on 7 November , at Minecraft content and materials are trademarks and copyrights of Mojang and its licensors.
This site is a part of Curse, Inc. About Minecraft Wiki Disclaimers Mobile view. Pickaxes that can hack through obsidian, swords that can hack through wither skeletons, armour that can withstand the force of spiders.
Diamond is the best! Up to eight dyes can be added. Up to one of any head, a gold nugget, a feather, or a fire charge can be added.
Both the diamond and the glowstone dust can be added with any of the other ingredients. Pick up an enchantment table from a crafting table output.
Another player or a mob must then pick up this diamond. Completely use up a diamond hoe , and then reevaluate your life choices. Initially, they were referred to as " emeralds ".
Diamond can be used to craft diamond blocks and diamond swords , shovels , pickaxes and axes. Emeralds from the previous version are now referred to as "diamonds".
Diamonds are now used to craft diamond helmets , chestplates , leggings and boots. Diamonds are now found in the new mineshaft chests.
Diamond ore can now be smelted into diamond gems, even though there isn't any way to pick up the ore without using mods. Diamonds are now used to craft enchantment tables.
Diamonds are now found in the new stronghold altar chests. Diamonds are now found in village blacksmith chests.
Diamonds can now be traded to blacksmith villagers in quantities of 3—5 for 1 emerald. Added desert temples , with a hidden chest room and loot containing diamonds.
Diamond have been changed in the game code from emerald to diamond, due to actual emeralds being added.For this reason, I-M diamonds tend to sell at a slight premium when they possess Medium to Very Strong fluorescence. The unique look of the emerald cut diamond is due to the step cuts of its pavilion and its large, open table. The 7th Brazilian Conference on the Geology of Diamonds to be held in Salvador, Bahia is attracting speakers and delegates from around the world, the organizers write in a press release. The MIC covers a five-year period through to 30 April Carat Though most think of "Carat" in terms of size, it is actually a measure of the weight of the diamond. Take advantage of our special offers diamondsresorts diamondsthudufushi planhotel maldives l diamondslifestyle enjoythemoment enjoyrealhospitality island beautifuldestinations holidays vacation perfectweather diamondsstaroftheeast underwaterworld amazing beautiful bluewater allinclusive http: The modified square shape is a nice bridge between a cushion and a princess cut, and for that reason looks beautiful set with both rounded or square cornered diamonds. Durch die Nutzung dieser Website erklären Sie sich mit den Nutzungsbedingungen und der Datenschutzrichtlinie einverstanden. He then attacked the Uzbeks around the cities of Bukhara and Khiva; his empire had reached its furthest expansion and rivaled the territorial extent of the ancient Iranian empires. Rough Market Mining and Exploration.